Challenge "Stumper" Question:
Although a Roman, Varro, speculated in the first century BC that perhaps people got sick after inhaling "tiny animals", and the Italian physician Fracastorius proposed a contagion theory, it was nearly two thousand years before a truly scientific "germ theory" was developed. In the mid nineteenth century Louis Pasteur (French chemist) and Robert Koch (German physician now generally known as a bacteriologist) published convincing arguments for the theory that tiny pathogenic organisms existed that could enter the body or be introduced to wounds to cause sickness and infection. At that time surgery was being done under general anaesthesia but the problem of sepsis was increasing. Mortality after amputations (for example) was as high as 40 to 60 percent.
Then, in the late nineteenth century, antiseptic conditions during surgery were produced by using carbolic acid (phenol) dressings over the incision and area of the operation. Who introduced this approach?