"Who Am I?" - Quiz #2
Can you identify these scientists
born between 1452 and 1951?
1. I was born in Italy in 1452.
My scientific investigations are recorded in my notebooks which I wrote in a unique (backwards) hand. I had ideas about many phenomena, invented instruments for measuring wind-force and the speed of ships. Fascinated by the flight of birds I observed this in great detail and designed a machine for human flight as well as other mechanical devices. My anatomical drawings, based on dissection, are beautiful and accurate but remained unknown until centuries after my death. .... Who am I?
2. I was born in America in 1791.
I studied in London, France and Italy and, until I was forty, my life was devoted to painting. I did however invent a piston pump and a machine for cutting marble. Then, in 1832, I designed a transmitting device based on interruption of an electric circuit, a receiving apparatus with an electro magnet and pen, and the dot-and-dash code that bears my name today. .... Who am I?
3. I was English, born in Italy in 1820.
I am popularly known as a pioneer of nursing reform. It is less well known that I was accomplished in mathematics. While nursing in Scutari, during the Crimean War I collected mortality rate and other data as a tool for improving conditions in hospitals, and represented them statistically. I invented polar-area charts and was made an honorary member of the American Statistical Association in 1874. .... Who am I?
4. I was born in England in 1827.
I was the founder of antiseptic surgery. General anesthesia was introduced in 1846 but sepsis was an increasing problem. Mortality after amputations was 40 to 60 percent. It was believed that sepsis was caused simply by air but after much experimentation I discovered that carbolic acid destroyed the tiny airborne disease causing organisms described by Louis Pasteur. .... Who am I?
5. I was born in Moravia in 1856.
I trained in medicine and did neurological research. Then I embarked on clinical work on nervous disorders and created a psychoanalytic method based on free association and dream analysis. I distinguished between two levels of mental functioning, a primitive, subconscious level, and a logical thinking level. .... Who am I?
6. I was born in Poland in 1867.
I did research on radiation phenomena, discovered radium and polonium, isolated radium and studied its nature and compounds. I was the first woman professor in France, introduced the scientific world to radioactivity and the fact that the atom is not a solid piece of matter, and was awarded two Nobel Prizes. .... Who am I?
7. I was born in Germany in 1879
and became a theoretical physicist. History ranks me with Copernicus, Galileo and Newton. I am popularly renowned for the equation E=mc2 and was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for my contributions to Theoretical Physics and especially for my 1905 discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. My major contribution to science was my Theory of Relativity which I published in 1915. .... Who am I?
8. I was born in Bavaria in 1882
and was a founder of abstract algebra and the New Math. I developed a noncomputational approach to mathematics and developed a Theorem, which was the foundation of quantum physics. A few weeks after my death in 1935, Albert Einstein, in a letter to the New York Times, described me as the most significant, creative mathematical genius. .... Who am I?
9. I was born in America in 1900.
I studied engineering at the University of Wisconsin and received my doctorate from Harvard. I began my research into computer technology in the 1930s when the field was in its infancy. I became world famous as a result of my work for the U.S. Navy in the development of the first Automatic Sequence Controlled CalculatorŅthe Harvard Mark IŅa mechanical computing device weighing more than 30 tonnes. .... Who am I?
10. I was born in America in 1901
the oldest of five children in an unconventional Philadelphia family. I studied at Barnard College with anthropologist Franz Boas and became a pioneer and innovator in social anthropology. My studies were conducted in the field in underdeveloped countries and were published in several influential books including "Coming of Age in Samoa". I concluded that culture is a primary determining factor in adolescent behavior. .... Who am I?
11. I was born in England in 1934
and made my name with ground-breaking field studies of the chimpanzees of the Gombe Stream Reserve in Tanzania, Africa. I made the first recorded observations of chimpanzees eating meat and making and using tools. As a result of my observations, scientists have had to redefine some characteristics once considered uniquely human. .... Who am I?
12. I was born in California in 1951
and received a Ph.D. from Stanford in physics, astronomy and astrophysics. On a whim I applied to NASA's astronaut training program, was accepted, and became the first American female astronaut to fly a space mission. I flew two missions - The Challenger STS-7 June 18-24, 1983 flight, and the STS-41G Challenger mission in 1984. Then I returned to academics as a professor of physics at the University of California, San Diego. .... Who am I?