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Stumper #41

Question 1. Match the scientific term to its explanation
Scientific term
A. Anecic
1. "upon the earth,"
B. Endogeic
2. "up from the earth,"
C. Epigeic
3. "within the earth."

Answer:     a. = 2.     b. = 3.     c. = 1.
Anecic = "up from the earth"
Endogeic = "within the earth
Epigeic = upon the earth

Question 2. Who wrote the book: "The Formation Of Vegetable Mould Through The Action Of Worms With Observations On Their Habits" (First Edition, October 10th, 1881) from which the following is quoted: "...it may be doubted if there are any other animals which have played such an important part in the history of the world as these lowly organized creatures."

       Answer: Charles Darwin


About Question 1.

Anecic (Greek for "up from" or "out of the earth")
These types include the familiar bait worm, the nightcrawler or dew worm (Lumbricus terrestris). They build permanent burrows into the deep layers of the soil sometimes as much as 8 feet deep. They drag organic matter from the soil surface into their burrows for food.

Endogeic (Greek for "within the earth").
These worms build extensive non-permanent burrows in the upper soil layers. They feed on organic matter in the soil, live exclusively in soil, and are not usually noticed except after a heavy rain when they come to the surface.

Epigeic (Greek for "upon the earth")
These include the red worm, manure worm, brandling worm, and red wiggler. They Live on the soil surface, form no permanent burrows, and feed on decaying organic matter.

About Question 2.

In the third chapter of his book Darwin tells of his observations and investigations into the slow subsidence of stones left on the surface of a field. He attributed the subsidence to Earthworm activity in the field. The following excerpt from Chapter 3 is an example of the type of experimental and observational science that Darwin practiced.
"A quantity of broken chalk was spread, on December 20, 1842, over a part of a field near my house, which had existed as pasture certainly for 30, probably for twice or thrice as many years. The chalk was laid on the land for the sake of observing at some future period to what depth it would become buried. At the end of November, 1871, that is after an interval of 29 years, a trench was dug across this part of the field; and a line of white nodules could be traced on both sides of the trench, at a depth of 7 inches from the surface. "

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