By Sara Thompson
Special to the Enterprise
Most people have learned that snowflakes are frozen water droplets that fall in places that have temperatures below freezing. Although that description is true, snowflakes go through a much more detailed process to become the beautiful crystals we know. One of the first people to photograph snowflakes is Wilson Bentley in 1885 and continued to do so for the rest of his life. His photographs showed that not only do snowflakes all have six points and are symmetrical, but no two are completely alike.
The air gets cooler the higher up in the atmosphere you get. When a cloud, which is made up evaporated water, becomes over saturated the water will begin to fall. In warm weather it will be rain, but when the temperature is cool enough snow will form. Snowflake formation, however, is more than just falling, frozen water. Snowflakes begin when water vapor begins to crystallize around a particle in the air such as dust or pollen. Because of the shape of the water molecules, the crystal shape, called a facet, will take a 6-sided, hexagonal shape. After the nucleus has formed, more water vapor will crystallize at the points of the facet, making the long, thin branches we all recognize.
This is the basic recipe for forming a snowflake. But the reason why no two snowflakes are the same are because of the conditions in which each of the parts form. Even though a facet will always be 6-sided, the shape of the branches depend on the temperature and the humidity of the air the flake is falling through. As the air changes so do the branches. Some will develop more facets with smaller branches, or just have one set of branches. Some branches are plate-like, while others look like small trees. Each snowflake will experience a different condition while it forms causing no two to ever be alike. Some will be very similar, but never exactly alike.
There is a fun and sparkly way to make snowflakes at home. All you will need is some paper, glue from a bottle (not a glue stick), and salt. Lay your paper on a counter or table and make a snowflake shape with your glue. You can find a template online if you like, but you can make your own, just remember to make it six sided and symmetrical. Before the glue dries, sprinkle salt on the paper and glue. The salt will stick to the glue and harden with it. When it dries you will have a sparkly snowflake. Optionally, you can color the salt blue or another color to make your snowflake colorful.
Explorit's coming events:
• Explorit is open to the public on Fridays from 1-4pm, Saturdays and Sundays from 10am-2pm. Admission is $5 per person. Explorit Members, ASTC, and those age 2 and under free.
• Saturday, February 26 from 12:00-2:00pm we will be hosting Girls in STEM event featuring tabletop demos from UC Davis groups, Girl Scouts Mobile STEM trailer, and more! All are welcome and is included with regular weekend admission.
• Spring into Science Camp for grades K-2. March 21-25 from 9:00am-12:00pm each day. Jump into an exciting science topic each day with Explorit. From the far reaches of space to the geology beneath your feet; make crafts, do hands-on experiments and enjoy demonstrations led by our staff educators. Camp will take place indoors, masks required, daily temperature checks and health survey, and campers must bring their own water bottle and snack. Price is $175 Members/$200 for Non-Members. Registration begins February 1st, sign-up quick as space is limited.
• A Membership to Explorit not only supports us but grants the recipient free visits to Explorit’s regular public hours, discounts on events, summer camps and workshops, and gives you ASTC benefits to visit other museums throughout the world. To purchase or for more information visit https://www.explorit.org/membership or call Explorit at 530-756-0191.